Quotations & Citations Guide _______________________________________________


Plagiarism has long been a problem in academic circles and will, regretfully, probably always be a problem. Too often it results from a lack of work on the plagiarizer's part--a willful and wanton theft of intellectual property, followed by the outrage of the plagiarizer tacking his or her name on the stolen work. Instituitions of learning impose strict and severe penalties on plagiarizers, from failing the plaigiarized assignment to expulsion. Unfortunately, as well, plagiarism isn't just the purview of the lazy and procrastinating student. Even well-known authors have been accused (and found guilty) of this offense.

Sometimes, however, it's unintentional. Yes, plagiarism can actually occur without intent. This occurs when the writer fails to properly quote or cite the original source. The writer may have every honest intention in the world to give credit where credit's due, but failure to adhere to the proper forms of quotation and/or citation can give the appearance of dishonesty.

The best way to avoid this situation is to properly quote and cite one's sources. There are several formats one may use; they vary from academic discipline to academic discipline, even from publication to publication. The three most commonly used in undergraduate classes are the Modern Language Association Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (most often just called the MLA Handbook), the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (the APA manual) and The Chicago Manual of Style. These are available for purchase, but you might find these quick guides userful as well.


Though each style manual has some variations in terms of how to quote a source in your writing, they are all essentially the same. For the proper ways to quote a source, please click here.

The ULM Library has copies of all these guides available:

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DISCLAIMER: The opinions stated herein do not necessarily reflect those of the University of Louisiana at Monroe. This page's creator is not responsible for the content of sites accessed from this website. This site created and maintained by Megan Lowe. Last updated 10.29.07.